Street lighting is one of the city council's biggest costs. The cost is to erect, energize and maintain street lamps. These electricity bills, which are used to excite street lamps, are the largest component. A typical city government spends three times as much on energy costs as maintaining light. The impact of street lamps on road users and residents has been well documented. The streetlights raise their sights while driving and prevent the flow of criminals. Therefore, street lamps are owned by the municipal government, private residences, ranchers, gated residential complexes, university institutions, hospitals and shopping centers, warehouse complexes.
And factory interior roads are used around the world.
Safe vehicle movement and street lamp design principles.
To ensure smooth and safe driving, street lamps aim to illuminate the road and provide adequate levels and vertical illumination. In the evening, the driver identifies the object based on the contrast between the object and the background. Street lighting is designed to maximize the contrast between objects. The good news is that you can get considerable savings from these lights. The main reason for the high cost is.
Lighting in some areas.
Manual/irregular switch practice.
In view of the importance of streetlights and the costs involved in providing the necessary services, the personnel involved in the decision-making process must understand the development of lighting technology in a timely manner. The advantages of modern technology products can be easily established through benchmarking and monitoring of energy consumption.
Some methods of street lamp cost can be reduced.
Replace inefficient light
Reduce the number of lamps
Install efficient switching equipment.
Reduced business hours
Improve maintenance and data management.
Improve input voltage quality/optimize power factor.
Many people think that installing automatic switching devices is the best way to reduce energy consumption. In practice, the effort to solve the lighting intensity is the simplest and lowest cost.
The LED street lamp
LED technology has several advantages over other lighting options.
1) energy efficiency - LED lights are seven times more energy-efficient than incandescent bulbs, and double the efficiency of fluorescent lamps. Only high-end HPS are more energy efficient than LED bulbs. Cradle-to-grave research shows that leds could be more cost-effective if one factor affects the environmental impact of producing and transporting HPS lamps. In addition, leds are becoming more efficient.
2) low light pollution - LED generates directional light. Almost all the light from the street lights is pointing downwards, reducing the amount of light pollution. Light pollution is the enemy of astronomers, using special filter telescopes to cut off ambient light, making it difficult to see the sky. Light pollution and slight intrusion also affect people's mood, birds and insects navigation, animal mating behavior and plant flowering directional light also improves the efficiency, because the direct upwards of 20-50% of the light is used to illuminate the road.
3) the low carbon footprint of manufacturing - LED by plastic and wire - other options usually have heavy metal bases made with more energy. In addition, leds continue to be 4 to 10 times longer than any other bulb, further reducing the carbon footprint in the manufacturing process.
4) low replacement cost - the cost of LED lamp and traditional bulb is not compared. A good LED lighting device could cost $20 million to implement when HPS only needs $9 million. The cost of the replacement cost and the HPS cost balloon to nearly $45 million. Clearly, leds are a more cost-effective option.
5) intelligent lighting control - intelligent system USES computer to optimize lighting. Hours in traffic volume small, can make the lights dimmed or go out, because close to the traffic flow and reduce the intensity of light, in the twilight time so selectively illuminating individual lights or the lights. It is also possible to selectively alter the color of light to ensure optimum visibility under different conditions. In the evening, for example, the red glow of the sky may make it difficult to observe things. Sources that emit blue light at night will supplement the red natural light and provide visibility. All of these
And more likely with LED lighting systems.
6) excellent color rendering index --HPS lamps may produce more original lumens, but because they mainly produce yellow light, the contrast is poor and the visibility is poor. Fewer LED lights can make larger HPS lights. Other street lighting options incandescent bulbs, though old and notorious, are inefficient but still used. Their use is most common in areas prone to frequent theft or destruction of lamps. At these locations, very high replacement rates may be used for these inexpensive bulbs. In other places, they are too wasteful to make sense. After all, when replacing the LED system with seven times energy and running for 50,000 hours, 5% efficiency and hundreds of hours of service life are intolerable.
High intensity discharge (HID) lamps - these include mercury vapour lamps (dated and almost extinct), metal halide lamps and high pressure sodium lamps (HPS). Metal halide lamp - these lights work under high temperature and high pressure, can emit ultraviolet light, and need special lamps and lanterns, so that in the case of the so-called "passive fault as much as possible to reduce the risk of injury or accident fire. Useful life. A small fire at harvard's greenhouse began with a lamp that was not properly housed. These lights cannot be started at full brightness because the gas in the lamp needs to be heated.
In addition, it takes 5 to 10 minutes of reboot time before each light is turned on to turn on the bulb. Therefore, these lights do not apply to intelligent control systems for turning on and off lights. The mercury content of these lights is not a joke. A single 1500 watt light may contain up to 1,000 milligrams of mercury.
High pressure sodium (HPS) lamp - is one of the more popular street lighting options. These are considered to be the most effective on the "lumen/watt" scale. The disadvantage is that the spectrum they produce is mostly yellow. These lamps have very low color index, do not faithfully reproduce the color. The lights are not favored by the police because it is difficult to determine the colour of the suspect's clothing and vehicle in the event of a crime. For a 100-watt bulb, each bulb contains an average of 16 milligrams of mercury, containing 1 to 22 milligrams of mercury. Don't safely
The treatment of these bulbs could lead to a massive exposure of mercury contaminated water and food by humans and wildlife.
The problem of mercury pollution and customers' preference for full spectrum have been driving the replacement of these lights, especially in self-managed residential complexes where people can directly pay for the quality of light. Fluorescent lamp - compared with HPS and LED lamp, mercury content is poor and energy efficiency is difficult in street lighting application. Other problems prone to low voltage failure and broken glass parts.
Many advantages of LED street lamps have been rapidly applied. Investment in energy saving lamps is being driven by the investment in the department of energy. Ann arbor (carbon dioxide emissions from 1000 watts, equivalent to 2445 tons, 3.8 years return), Seattle (the utility companies are leading energy-saving lighting test wave), New York, Los Angeles (140000 street lights will be converted to the LED system), Pittsburgh lamp (40000), Dusseldorf, Ontario, Canada, and lighting example, shows how in the dashboard began as a tiny light emitting diode technology, helps to develop a finer, more bright, less power hungry computer monitors are changing mainstream use of energy usage patterns.